澳洲留学生论文-维护和发展道德文化

澳洲留学生论文-维护和发展道德文化

来源:www.51fabiao.org作者:luhuiyes发布时间:2015-07-20 10:54
本文是一篇有关维护与发展道德文化的论文,作者开篇介绍了维护和发展道德文化在管理中的地位与作用,并在下文针对道德文化提出系统性的管理建议。
维护和发展道德文化的管理角色在执法机构中是至关重要的。如果一个人在组织中接受担任管理或领导者的角色,他/他应该具有最高标准的正直度和道德行为。领导阶层是组织的道德基石。这是个历史事实。领导人定下了基调,通过他们的行动和管理塑造了他人的行为模型(西方,2006)。执法管理人员负责维护和发展组织的道德文化,包括有效的领导,严谨的招聘实践,道德培训,良好的政策和程序,通过适当训练后的责任感,以及辨认和识别亚文化的颠覆性。
 
首先,管理部门必须评估测定他们组织的道德文化。大部分员工的行为可能处决于他们认为有价值的管理行为。你会发出什么样的关于各种行为和态度的价值信号?什么行为可以取得犒劳?你的组织有代表团或有价值意义的报表吗?道德价值是属于这个报表的一部分吗(斯皮尔斯,2007)?在执法机构回答这些非常重要的问题前,他们必须清楚什么是道德和定义对与错和不同界线。最好的和最简单的方式来定义这些原则是发布道德规范和使命宣言来明确组织中的对与错。
 
组织的任务应该是已经定义好的和明确的。机构成员应密切关注价值观和管理行为,这是高级管理层的绝对性责任来确保和适当追踪良好的道德实践定义。这要求首席执行官(警长或警察局长)在组织内建立一套明确的道德标准。
 
Management's role in developing and maintaining an ethical culture within a law enforcement agency is paramount. If one accepts the role of a manager or leader in an organization, he or she should expect to be held to the highest standards of integrity and ethical behavior. "Leadership is the cornerstone of the moral foundation of organizations. This is a historical truth. Leaders set the tone, and through their actions and conduct they model this behavior for everyone else" (West, 2006). Law enforcement administrators are responsible for developing and maintaining the ethical culture of their organization through, effective leadership, rigorous-hiring practices, ethical based training, well articulated policies and procedures, accountability through proper discipline, and the identification and recognition of subversive subcultures.
 
First, management must assess and determine the ethical culture of their organization. "Members of your staff are likely to engage in behaviors that they believe are valued by management. What signals are you sending about the kinds of behaviors and attitudes you value? What kinds of behaviors are rewarded? Does your organization have a mission or values statement? Are ethical values a part of that statement" (Speers, 2007). Before a law enforcement agency can answer these very important questions, they must first determine what is ethical and define the difference between right and wrong. The best and easiest way to define these principles is to distribute a code of ethics and mission statement which clearly states right and wrong within the organization.
 
The organization's mission should be well defined and clear. Agency members pay close attention to the values and behaviors of management. It is the absolute responsibility of senior management to ensure that ethical practices are well defined and properly followed. This requires that the Chief Executive (Sheriff or Chief of Police) establish a clear set of ethical standards within the organization. These standards must be maintained with diligence, fairness and consistency (Wright, 1999). "If incidents of inappropriate behavior are ignored, when no one talks about standards of professional conduct, and administrators fail to conscientiously and routinely review and inspect for breaches of ethical practice, then serious incidents are more likely to occur and occur with regularity" (Wright, 1999).
 
Where the general manager/chief executive officer is clearly supportive of and models ethical behavior, a positive culture will permeate the whole organization. General Managers, CEO's, and other senior managers must give strong messages about ethical behavior. Positive and effective messages provide the foundation on which to build a culture of proper, ethical behavior (Ball, 2001).
 
Equally important in developing an ethical culture in a law enforcement organization is to recruit and hire individuals who already possess integrity with strong moral and ethical characteristics. Oftentimes agencies do not place enough emphasis and resources towards hiring these types of individuals. The hiring processes themselves lack the necessary framework needed to both identify the right candidates and "weed out" those who possess characteristics contrary to the agencies ethical standards or goals. The recruiting and hiring process should contain elements and/or stages which would identify these traits (positive or negative) in prospective employees. As part of the process, extensive background investigations, polygraph examinations, and pre-employment interviews should be conducted to determine previous behaviors as it relates to work history and financial matters. If organizations dedicate more resources towards recruitment and hiring, it would be a strong first step towards affecting the overall ethical culture of the organization. It is much easier to maintain high ethical standards, if the agency focuses sufficient resources on recruiting and hiring ethical individuals (Morgan, 2009).
 
The next step in the process would be training regarding personal and organizational ethics. As it relates to individuals entering the law enforcement field, most agencies take a three- tiered approach to ethics training. The first tier is obviously recruitment and training. Police professionalism requires that recruits develop a fundamental understanding of ethical principles and concepts during their basic police academy experience. As is true with any other skill set, police ethics can be learned, and recruits knowledge and retention of ethical principles and professional standards can and should be tested and measured frequently (Jones, 1995).
 
The second tier is institutionalization of ethical policing. This requires ethics training for police personnel of all ranks and experience levels within the organization. It is imperative that a uniform set of ethical principles are communicated and embraced by all member of the organization. Each tier of the training curriculum must address the specific ethical issues challenging each particular group of officers receiving the training. Training for experienced police officers should consist of issues and scenarios faced by patrol officers, supervisors, investigators, and undercover agents. This training should cover such topics as making prudent decisions, planning and implementing aggressive or proactive patrols, and performing ethically while engaged undercover operations (Jones, 1995).
 
In-service training for experienced officers applies the same basic recruit principles, but incorporates a few additional features. The training program begins with an open and honest discussion of the limitations of external controls on police behavior. By discussing the limits of the law and other external methods of controlling police behavior, an officer can begin to view police professionalism as an internally driven ideal, reflecting not only skill and competence, but also a keenly tuned sense of professional ethics (Jones, 1995).
 
Another key component of the training program is to engage officers in a discussion of the core ethical values of policing, such as honesty, fidelity, and personal integrity. "The seminar focuses on the importance of discretion, the professional responsibility to use discretion wisely, and the moral choices required by individual autonomy" (Jones, 1995).
 
The third tier is incorporating an ethics training program for police managers and supervisors, who play a central role in the institutionalization of ethics within the agency. This portion of the training program promotes police supervisors to manage through values and to lead by personal example. In other words supervisors should "talk the talk as well as walk the walk." As in the recruit-training program, the first phase of supervisors' training begins with an open and honest discussion of the current police role, specifically detailing the various aspects limiting the imposition of ethical policing. Also discussing the range of opportunities for officer misconduct, the existence of a police subculture which oftentimes protects rule breakers, and the necessary use of discretion associated with the order-maintenance role. Supervisors also address the issues of public accountability, emphasizing police professionalism and professional ethics within the context of community-based policing. Because the goal in this phase is to prompt supervisors to discuss problems and issues of concern to them, this program relies heavily on the training leader to encourage participation. In order for police professionals to identify those principles of professional ethics that will help them to police and manage, the discussion leader must present realistic information about the fundamentals of policing and professional ethics. This approach will provoke the thoughts of the participants and encourage meaningful discussion (Jones, 1995).
 
An ethical culture can also be achieved through well articulated policies and procedures which govern employee actions and behaviors. When these policies and procedures are violated and/or citizen complaints are received, it is equally important to have a system in place which diligently and impartially investigates such violations and/or complaints. "When officers face ethical dilemmas and community residents demand accountability, internal affairs investigators should hold places of honor, not contempt. Indeed, law enforcement professionals should regard internal affairs functions as an integral part of their agencies" (Arnold, 1998).
 
Internal affairs investigations represent a significant part of any law enforcement administrators/supervisors job assignment. Whether they work for a smaller department and only investigate minor complaints or investigate internal affairs complaints full time for a large agency, law enforcement administrators have an important responsibility. Properly understanding this function and following some standard guidelines will assist supervisors in successfully performing this critical task (Arnold, 1998).
 
The supervisor's sole job is to investigate the violation/complaint and determine the facts. Supervisors must approach every case in the same manner as they would any other type of investigation, even though the alleged crime may be a violation of agency policy and/or procedure, and the suspect is an agency member/employee. What becomes problematic for some supervisors is the simple fact that they are required to investigate and interview individuals within their own organization. Supervisors are oftentimes uncomfortable interviewing officers, and they become apprehensive as it relates to confronting and challenging their own personnel. However, by understanding their responsibilities and following specific guidelines, supervisors can reduce their trepidation over conducting internal complaint investigations (Arnold, 1998).
 
Supervisors conducting internal affairs investigations play a critical role in maintaining ethical standards and professionalism in their organizations. Understanding this role and focusing on the necessity of generating quality investigations are the first steps in approaching these types of cases. The next step is to follow agency guidelines in order to initiate and complete a thorough, impartial investigation. Supervisors must remember that they have a duty to establish the facts and not to persecute or protect anyone (Arnold, 1998).
 
Once the facts are gathered, and police misconduct is identified, those officers involved must be counseled or disciplined accordingly. These actions must be conducted in a timely and consistent manner. Police administrators must delve out proper discipline while paying close attention to the subject officer's rights to due process. In doing so, administrators must carefully weigh the facts and circumstances and determine fair discipline based on a myriad of factors, such as: the severity of the violation or offense, the level of discipline given to officers who previously committed similar offenses, the officers previous offense history (progressive discipline), and any other migrating or aggravating circumstances which arose during the investigation. Most importantly, as soon as these factors are considered it is incumbent upon administrators to proceed with the discipline process as indecision and/or delay causes disruption and sometimes even chaos in the organization. Finally, once an officer receives discipline (typically in serious matters), the Sheriff or Chief of Police should communicate (via memorandum or position paper) the circumstances surrounding the investigation and the reasons why the decisions were made to discipline the officer. This formal communication from the Sheriff or Chief will reduce the speculation about the incident by agency members, and it will send a clear message to the entire organization as to what behavior is considered unacceptable (Courtney, 1996).
 
Perhaps one of the most critical areas in fostering an ethical environment is identifying subversive agency subcultures. These subcultures exist, and catch phrases such as the "code of silence" and the "thin blue line" have been used to describe rogue and unethical police subcultures. Unfortunately, these negative subcultures can oftentimes lead to the demise of individual officers, special teams, entire shifts, divisions, or, on a few occasions an entire department. It is equally important to know and study widespread organizational ethical failures, and it is just as critical to examine acts by single officers. The entire law enforcement profession must study and educate the lessons learned from these acts, not conceal them. All levels of the agency should be familiar with, and address the actions and failures that could convert a positive police subculture into a negative one. To attain accountability throughout the organization, members need to become more proactive in policing themselves internally (Bills, 2009).
 
Individuals entering the law enforcement profession oftentimes bring their own faiths, traditions, and ethical and moral compasses. While adapting to the culture, they replace their individual identities for that of the culture of the team or shift. These individuals wear uniforms, attend an academy away from their families, and may be treated as new recruits who lack value until becoming sworn members of the agency. As training continues, recruits are ingrained into the culture of their agency and the profession. If a recruit lacks a strong personal, traditional, or ethical basis, the customs of the department supersede theirs and becomes their core value. When this occurs, the thin blue line can be created (Bills, 2009). It is incumbent upon law enforcement administrators to identify these subcultures and deal with them accordingly.
 
In conclusion, law enforcement administrator must discuss, and continue to deal with, the issue of ethics and ethical conduct. Our continuously changing world is accompanied by diverse and more complex ethical questions. To effectively adapt to these changes, law enforcement administrators must continue to emphasize the importance of high ethical standards. It is only through sound recruitment practices, proper ethical training, effective leadership, and a published code of ethics will law enforcement agencies be able to succeed and flourish in the future (Grant, 2002).
 
"The mark of a civilization is how well its policemen have breathed and absorbed the spirit of liberty.... Police are the guardians of our civil liberties.... They have an unequal opportunity to show the downtrodden and the momentarily despairing how to cope in a free country" (Grant, 2002). As a result law enforcement officers must be ethical role models who assist in setting the example for the rest society. "Ethics do not come from a piece of paper, but from within. All law enforcement personnel must set the ethical example; therefore, not only will law enforcement become a more ethical profession but, perhaps, society will become more ethical as well" (Grant, 2002).



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