气候变化对于旅游业及旅游目的地可持续策略影响

气候变化对于旅游业及旅游目的地可持续策略影响

来源:www.liuxuelunwen.org作者:cinq发布时间:2016-03-28 09:39
本文将重点研究气候变化与旅游业可持续发展的关系。并提出一些措施,以解决下列段落的困境。
气候变化对于旅游业及旅游目的地可持续策略影响
 
旅游业是世界上最大的产业,气候是旅游业发展的自然条件,也是一个重要的旅游资源。因此,研究气候变化对旅游业的影响。气候变化对旅游业的影响是明显的,不同的。各种领域和领域都有好的和坏的效果,但是坏的影响比良好的效果更重要。旅游和气候之间有着密切的联系,因为旅游业在很大程度上依赖于气候。与其他行业相比,更容易受气候变化影响,20世纪80年代以来全球气候变化研究的出现,气候变化和旅游业成为世界旅游业的一个问题。
 
Introduction 引言
 
Tourism is the biggest industry in the world, climate is the natural conditions for tourism to develop and it is also an important tourist resource. Therefore, the study on climate change’s effect on tourism is heated. The effect of climate change on tourisms is obvious and various. There is good and bad effect on various areas and fields but the bad effect weighs much more than the good effect. (John,2001) There is a close connection between tourism and climate because tourism depends on climate to a large extent. Compared to other industries, it is affected by climate change more easily than other industries.With the emergence of studies on global climate change  since the 1980s, climate change and tourism have become a concern of tourist industry all over the world and become a problem of tourist industries.(Peter,2013) In this paper, it will focus on the relationship between climate change and tourism’ sustainable development. And some measures will be suggested to solve the dilemma in the following paragraphs.
 
旅游和气候变化之间的悖论 Paradox between tourism and climate change
气候变化对旅游业的不利影响 The bad effect of climate change on tourism
 
Tourism activities consist of three important factors: tourism subject, tourism object and tourism intermediary, which is tourists, tourism resource and tourism industry. The effect of tourism is mainly shown in these three aspects. The natural resource of tourism depends on natural environment largely and global climate change affects environment, natural resources and comfort level of tourists and choice of tourists and further affects the development of tourism. Firstly, climate change on tourists mainly reflect its effect on tourists’ physiology, mentality and actions. Tourists are more likely to choose a fine day to go out with moderate temperature, enough sunshine. Temperature is one of the most important climate conditions which affects people’s going out. Recently, some research show that the best temperature to go for a trip is between 15 and 18 ℃,which can make people feel energetic and happy. It is the term called recreation climate. That is because high temperature can make people feel tired and stuffy and low temperature can make people feel inconvenient and the weak are easily ill when the temperature changes greatly. This kind of effect can be reflected on tourists’ actions, that is to say their linger time on this destination will be reduced, so their interest in their destination and the value of experience will be reduced as well, especially tour groups are attacked by natural disasters. Another climate change on tourism is reflected on natural resource due to the vulnerability of tourist resources itself. Besides, climate change has great threat to the diversity of creatures. (Lesley A,1997)Take Australia as an example, corals and rare species are attractive to tourists and they are famous tourist spots in Australia. In recent years the climate has a great change, which leads to the rise of temperature, as a result, the high temperature causes many ices in North and South pole to melt. And then the sea-level rises because of the climate change, thus the rise of sea-level has a threat to many beautiful islands and beaches and also animals on them and even the disappearance of coral reef. And the global warming has affected almost 500 endangered famous tourist attractions. And the loss of these tourist attractions are great and can not be redeemed once they are damaged. Last but not least, tourism is a comprehensive industry, which needs various support, so the climate change has a worse effect on tourism. For instance, transport is the knot to connect with tourists and tourist destination, which is an important link to realize tourist activities. Climate conditions’ effect on tourism is mainly reflected on the directional development specifications. Bad climate conditions will affect on some important traffic lines. The tourist benefits are referring to the economic, social and environmental benefits brought by tourism, the climate change on tourism benefit is obvious. Climate change on tourism benefit is obvious, especially on its economic aspects. Firstly, it refers to the transform of supply, income will flow from the countries with more tourist to the countries with less tourists. Secondly, it is the transform of demands, which means the changes of consumer behavior will lead to the choice of tourist attractions.
 
对旅游业的良好影响 The good effect on tourism 
 
Tourism will worsen the climate change in some places but on the other hand, climate change will also improve the climate condition of some countries that are close to the pole. For instance, recently, a new kind of tourist project is rising in some countries secretly, which is named doomsday tour. It is estimated that totally ten tourist attractions will disappear in the world which are all affected by global warming and sea-level rising. (Youyi,1984) Concern of global warming makes a lot of American and English tourist move their attentions to these attractions, And tourist agency advertise this disappearing tourist Atlantic and encourage people to have a different experience, the number of which is twice that of five years’ ago. Therefore, climate change brings some opportunities to tourist industry. 
Tourism industries’ responsibility regarding climate change
Tourism industries should reduce emission and save energy to protect the environment. Tourist transportation will affect the result of the whole tourism industry’s achievement of emission-reduce and energy-saving. It is estimated that the carbon emission of the tourism transportation takes up 55.23% of the whole tourism industry. (Sonali,2008) It can be seen that the tourist transportation plays an important role in the development of low-carbon tourism industry. There are some advice for tourism, firstly, encourage tourists to go to the tourist destination by train or some other transportations which are low-carbon. For example, Mount Emei tourist attractions in China demands tourist to travel by the uniform bus to go sightseeing along the mountain.(Janet,2003) Secondly, Use clean energy by the application of advanced technology. Lastly, replace those planes with high energy consumption and high emission. Tourist accommodation is the second main factor that discharge carbon dioxid. So some measures should be adopted to control their carbon dioxide emission. In terms of accommodation’s energy system, recycle energy are encouraged to be used. As for the engineer technology of hotels, the harmony between tourist construction and nature should be considered more. Various energy saving technology can be used in various indoor environment. The recycling idea should be used to change waste into valuable things, low-carbon and healthy repast are encouraged. (Zongwei,2013). The realization of energy saving needs new technology and new management ideas need advanced technology and advanced management ideas. Energy-saving mode should be built based on the evaluation of energy-saving and check-up system. Compared with tourist transportation and tourist accommodation, tourist activities’ carbon dioxide is less than those. Tourist adaptivities is the key factor for tourists to experience. Various mode of tourist activities mean various transportation and accommodation mode, the carbon emission of which is different too. Therefore, tourist agency should encourage tourists to choose low-carbon tourist activities and encourage them to stay longer in tourist destination and choose short-distance trip. All these suggestions should be taken into consideration for tourism industry to make their own effort in protecting the environment.(Colin Michael,1995)
Examples of climate change on tourist attractions 
Beijing is the capital of China, which is an international metropolis, so tourism of Beijing is very international, which means that visitors comes from external markets to the region and from some other countries in the region. (Damian,20007) Compared with other foreign visitors, the amount of domestic tourism is relatively small. The industry consists of three distinctive sub-sectors, which is defined by kind of accommodation or ways of travel and accommodation, that is guest house tourism, cruise tourism and yachting tourism as well. Socio-economic effect differs greatly among sub-sectors. Hotels can produces the largest capital investment share, visitor spending, jobs and payment balance as well. Accommodation of guests, restaurants and some concerning services, resources of nature and history, and some special events even help to determine the visitors’ experience. The changes of climate or the variability of climate may have a direct effect on capital investment such as real estates, infrastructures ans heritage assets as well or have an indirect influence on the goods and services’ flow, which includes those services offered by the ecosystem of nature and processes. Forests, the Great Wall, summer palace and the forbidden city are all a part of a rapidly increasing economy or natural tourism experiences in Beijing. Beijing’s slogan is “Welcome to Beijing”, which is vivid and easy for people to remember. It is the same with spain’s slogan: Smile! You are in Spain! These slogans are all simple with deep meanings. Beijing has always been a must tourist attractions for foreign tourists who come to China. 
As a cultural, economic and political center of China, it environmental conditions are cared by not only domestic people but also foreign visitors. Its special position and its service demands it to realize the unification of social benefits,economic and environmental benefits together by continuous endeavor. However, some environmental problems still come up, among them, haze is the most important one caused by climate change in recent years. And the haze has caused a really bad effect on Beijing’ tourism. Many foreign visitors has an idea to go to Beijing to experience China’s culture, but they dare not to go because of the haze. The bad influence of haze also spread over to foreign invested companies who want to stay in China. (Janet,2010) Even though the number of foreigners who want to run away from China is not clear, there is no deny that PM 2.5 is like a real challenger , the phenomena that foreigners and some Chinese ran away from China or immigrate is really existed. It is estimated that billions of tourists come to China every year in previous years but now it decreased by 4 percent, which can not be ignored by Chinese government and local governments. The China’s environment development report distributed in April said Beijing is at the second position from the bottom of air quality list of national provincial cities and municipality directly under the central government. (Feng,2011)And such report are often from European and American countries , these countries are very concerned about their people who live in China. Financial Times of England regard the haze weather in Beijing as the doomsy day of air and reported that some foreigners want to leave form China. Some staffs in Beijing have already felt uncomfortable. Some foreigners in Beijing want to work in their home in order to protect themselves from the bad weather. In October 21st, Associated Press of America reported that : China’s newest tourist slogan is “ Beautiful China” . The haze weather attract the outsiders’ attentions on the cost of environment and health caused by industrialism. China’s tourism benefits from China’s fast development and increasing rising international positions but it cannot come up with the international trends. (Alessandro,2002) Beauty has lots of various appreciating methods but the report on climate pollution emerge in an endless stream, so people will not believe China is not perfectly beautiful. Tourism scientist Mo Lisen said. Besides, Times newspaper from America reported that the amount of foreign tourists will decrease by 5% compared to the same time last year and those who come to Beijing will decrease by 15%. All these data shows that climate change has a really bad influence on Beijing’s tourism industry. Haze is not only existing in Beijing, Singapore also has the same case, as well all know, Singapore is well known for its clean environment, but recently Singapore faces unprecedented haze weather. So the Singapore tourism has been affected heavily. Affected by haze weather, Singapore ferry wheel is closed or canceled the outdoor performance, and other tourist attractions nearby is affected by it more or less. The reason of Singapore’s haze is different from that of Beijing, Beijing’s haze is mainly caused by the enlarging industrial areas but Singapore’s haze is mainly caused by farmers’ burning the banana garden in Indonesia, its neighbour countries. But the result is same, they all go through a tough period in tourism industry.(Jim,2002)
The Beijing and its tourism industry measures taken to deal with climate change 
Firstly, Control the coal and smoke pollution: Popularize and strengthen the check on coal, punish those who use the coal with content below 0.5% and dust below 10%. (Suzanne,2006)Within three rings, the catering services which burn coal for heat will be canceled to improve the air quality. Accelerate the constructions of factories without coals burning. Forbid the management of outdoor barbecues within four -ring in Beijing. Secondly, control the automotive pollutions, strengthen the check on automotive wast, related agency can take back the driving card and vehicle registration plate of the drivers whose vehicle waste is out of control. Make the rules about vehicle’s forbidden driving areas and try to widen the areas of which the vast trucks can not drive within four lines. Manufactures must set waste treatment places and are responsible for the waste treatment tasks. Motor maintenance companies in Beijing must be equipped with waste monitors to check vehicles’ waste discharge for free. (Tejvir,,1992) If companies do not test the waste discharge amount of vehicles which are not up to the waste discharge standard intentionally, the companies’ license will be revoked. Control dust pollution, enforce the management of dust in construction site. Construction site should adopt some measures to control the dust such as splitting water on the ground and build some fences. Related administration agencies will enforce its management and check on the dust in the construction site. The agency which is in charge of the cleanness should oversee the cleaners.
 
优势 Strength:
The Beijing government are making policies to adapt to the climate change and take measures to deal with the problems caused by climate change, which intends to deal with the demands and results of climate change both in the tourism sectors and also in the water resource and infrastructure services as well.(Alan A,2003) The tourist department of Beijing is working closely with world tourism organization and some other different UN institutions concerning climate changes projects, other countries’ practices on climate changes will be referred to. Central government will be allocated to Beijing to improve its sustainable development,on the one hand, Beijing will increase its investment in environment protection by establishing environmental funds and low-interest loans, on the other hand, Beijing will attract more overseas investment to enhance environmental constructions by its advantage of capital of China.(Janet,2003) UN also give some funds to encourage its climate change initiatives and its cooperation with other countries. There are also some volunteers and non-governmental sectors all over the world to deal with the problems caused by climate change and to protect those top tourist attractions such as the Forbidden City and the Great Wall. Beijing will make full use of its capital technical advantages to promote its progress in environmental protection and carry out its clean production system. In the process of changing from extensive economy to intensive economy, Beijing encourages people to develop and make full use of producing technology and craft which can reduce the waste discharge according to different situations. As for the existed polluted industries, Beijing will continue to control and deal with technology and continue to do research on pollution control and managing technology. Beijing strengthens its infrastructure services and tries its best to improve ecological environment. (Dimitri,1998) Although Beijing has already built A Suwei , Datun large-scale sewage treatment plant. It is not enough at all because it can not keep up with the demand rate of sewage production. As for the new industry, Beijing will emerge its sustainable development ideas in designing. In all, Beijing should make fundamental and great breakthrough in environmental protection. 
 
劣势 Weakness:
The haze weather in Beijing leaves a bad impression on Beijing, the haze weather shows the imbalance between Beijing fast development and environmental protection, and its slow actions to do with the haze weather. All these have a direct and indirect influence on tourism. Public and private sectors’s corruption practices also make related sectors slow to solve environmental problems, especially in developing developing countries such as China. (Rob,1995)Initiatives concerning climate changes probably are slowed by the lagged infrastructure system. Related laws and rules to control factories’ discharge are not enough. This will affect the overall result of the environmental protection in Beijing. All these factors will affect the efficiency of haze treatment.
 
机会 Opportunities:
The overall citizens’ awareness of environmental protection will be improved through this event and this awareness will make related slaveholders invest in issues concerning climate change. The treatment of Beijing’ s environmental problems will need the public’s help because Beijing’s investment in infrastructure is not enough and economy is not very strong, so Beijing city employ some old people who are retired or those unemployed people to help to clean the street. (James,2004)This provides some job opportunities to these disadvantaged groups. And the revenues from the government means more job opportunities. More experts on this field and workers will be employed to do research and deal with the issues concerning climate changes. The employment of tourism has increased by 0.7% since the practice about environmental protection is done. Important stakeholders of Beijing’s tourism are trying to adjust their plans and development to be inline with climate change. Besides, the United Nations offers some supports in developing climate changes vulnerabilities and assessment and it is a chance that can be applied by Beijing to deal with its own problems about climate changes.
 
威胁 Threats: 
Even though many laws concerning climate have passed by most of countries, some are still not passed by governmental-level and international-level agencies. It will bring threats to the actions and aims of UN if there exists such policies. The haze weather has been existing in Beijing for a long time and no effective measures are made to deal with the issues and these threats lead to the loss of both economy and tourism aspects. (Vijay,2012) Haze may result in some disease and even deaths, some children and foreign staffs have have some symptoms of cough disease. And these tourism industries will have some problems in attracting some potential tourists. Tourists will hesitate to go to Beijing and choose some other tourist attraction in fear that they got ill due to the serious haze climate.
 
Conclusion 结论
 
Climate is a factor that tourism pay much attention to because tourists’ decision, safety and comfort-level are depend on the the tourist destination’s climate change and weather patterns. The climate change will have a great influence on tourism and tourism should take some measures to cope with the environmental problems. At the same time, it should shoulder tcthe responsibility of protecting the environment. Thus economic development and environmental protection can be ensured at the same time. In the last twenty years, the United Nations has been working with its members together and other countries to make and pass some related laws and rules to deal with environmental problems. But some problems are still existing,for instance, the effectiveness to change this policies into actions and some governments are not give enough supports to the private tourist sectors. Therefore, it is not a country’s responsibility instead this task needs the whole world’s efforts to improve the environment and develop the tourism industry around the world.
 
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