针对澳大利亚和新西兰农村基层社会管理形势的调查

针对澳大利亚和新西兰农村基层社会管理形势的调查

来源:www.liuxuelunwen.org作者:cinq发布时间:2014-04-23 16:57
已经有来自120个国家的移民来到这里谋生和发展,是一个典型的移民国家,多民族多文化的社会成为澳大利亚的一个突出特点。

 

针对澳大利亚和新西兰农村基层社会管理形势的调查Australia and New Zealand investigation of rural grassroots social management situation
 
, Australia, New Zealand to the countryside, agriculture basic situation Australia is located in south Pacific Ocean between and the Indian Ocean, covers an area of 769.2 square kilometers and a population of more than 2200, of which 74.2% is British and Irish descendants, Asian 4.9%, of which Chinese, overseas Chinese about 450000 people), native residents accounted for 2%. There have been 120 from global countries, 140 national immigrants come here to make a living and development, is a typical immigration country, much of the formation of the national multicultural society become Australia a prominent feature. Australia is the world of one of the highest rate in the country of urbanization, the urban population accounts for the population 75%, only Sydney and Melbourne is focused on more than a third of the total population. Australia is a to farming, mining and manufacturing primarily country, is rich in sheep, and oxen, wheat and sucrose and other agricultural products. Farming to wheat, breed sheep give priority to, the national about 480 million hectares of land for agriculture, agricultural population per capita land for farming and animal husbandry 27 hectares, the agriculture population accounts for the population 6%. New Zealand is located in the southwest Pacific, an area of about sq km, with a population of more than 410, including European immigrants descendant accounts for 78.8%, the Maori 14.5%, Asian accounted for 6.7%. New Zealand's largest city and the first big following is Auckland, population 800000, is the country's largest industrial center and international transport hub. New Zealand is mainly of national agriculture, animal husbandry, garden are included in agriculture, in the top agricultural, engaged in agricultural population to 10%, but all products of agriculture income accounts for about three quarters of the whole national income, country, 60% of foreign exchange income is the top of the creation, animal husbandry will account for only about 80% of the total agriculture, animal husbandry of the population engaged in agriculture accounts for 80% of the population. In addition, New Zealand or the world's largest producer and exporter of velvet antler, production accounts for 30% of the world's total output. Australia, new two countries agriculture production is basically a farm for the unit to the organization, the scale of production is in commonly 400 to 500 hectares, the whole process of farming mechanization realized in all, and agricultural labor productivity is very high, a breeding for thousands of cattle farm, only 3 to 7 workers. As a high urbanization rate country, Australia, new most agricultural practitioners are living large farms, small city, only a small amount of agricultural population distribution in the vast rural areas. Living in rural population and often in order to a farm for residential units,so live relative to disperse, between two families located a few kilometers, more than 10 kilometers, even a few kilometers is very normal matter, basically it is difficult to find and in similar population gathered rural community.
Second, Australia, new grassroots social management system of the main conditions Australia, new capital is the commonwealth, a council cabinet system in the majority in parliament by the party in power. Australia and at the same time, the lessons from the American federalism, established a federal, state, and federal and state the decentralization of power. The country is divided into new south wales, Victoria, Queensland, Australia, south west Australia and Tasmania six states, capital and the northern territory two straight jurisdiction areas (territory), in addition to the Norfolk island and so on some scattered overseas territories. States have their own parliament, the government, the prime minister ZhouDu and state. The Australian federal, state and local levels of government management system, the federal parliament and government is responsible for the national interests of the deal with foreign, national defense, immigration, higher education, employment and social welfare, etc. The state council and the state added the federal government's activities. There are about 700 places the national government entity, the local government power and responsibility is not the same, but the general is mainly responsible for the town planning, construction standard monitoring, infrastructure construction and maintenance, public health and health, public libraries and community, entertainment and leisure facilities, etc. New Zealand in 1840 became a British colony, in 1907 the new independent, become the British dominion, political, economic, diplomatic are still under British control. 1947 to become sovereign state. New Zealand every three years a parliamentary election. Parliament control laws and public finance. Prime minister leading the New Zealand government. The governor of ministers and executive meetings are legal and top administrative agencies. Administrative meeting presided over by the governor, and the governor absence by prime minister or senior minister chair. The governor must exercise their power to administrative meeting advice for guidance. The cabinet master real power. New Zealand the country is divided into 12 regions, we have 74 districts administrative institutions, including 15 city hall, 58 Chatham's islands district council and parliament. Australia, New Zealand city government or area administrative institutions is the lowest levels of social affairs management authority, basically equivalent to township, but both our country and the village committee certain functions. The city government generally just part of the local social affairs, regional public affairs by the state in the state of discipline management, such as the main road between community, fire control, emergency care, social security and elementary school and middle school education, and the federal government management social security, civil, employment and public health care. The city government directly to residents, in between the people and the city government again no middle institutions. All real estate owner and in the community of the qualification of voter registration citizens over 18, have the mayor and the city council election committee members rights. The mayor and the city council members from each social class, all kinds of professional. Residents, service agencies and departments and local enterprises of public management are understood, and all the citizens have the right to participate in government in the decision-making process, also have the right to participate in municipal council. The local government is the most important principle is to safeguard residents in public management of the jurisdiction of the right to know, to participate in, and administration and supervision, to help the city government in public management effectively and accurately and make a new policy decision. The city government must ensure that all members within the jurisdiction in life equal opportunities, equal to attend the city government decision-making process, service and plan. To do this, the general is issued by the municipal government using different languages of publications, such as magazines, a weekly newspaper, the annual report and so on to residents for free.
Three, Australia, new grassroots public service development and achievements in Australia, in New Zealand are high taxes, gao fuli country, the gap between rich and poor is small, basically forming a national social welfare nets, including the remote areas. More kinds of social welfare and complete citizens from birth to death can enjoy various kinds of benefits, such as family allowances, dole, birth allowance, immune allowances, parents, children, childcare subsidies allowance allowance, housing assistance for disabled children and allowances, nursing people subsidies, native youth grants, a remote area children's assistance, health care card, aged allowance, most vulnerable like widows allowance, the disabled, allowances, old age, elderly health card case, phone subsidy, veterans subsidies, and the fatherless, and brought the allowance of raising allowance of education allowance, etc. In 1997, Australia established a special new agency, called the "contact center", is invested and set up the government nonprofit institutions, it is responsible for the original several department by the federal government the series of social work. The national network note for remote areas service, and arrange for aboriginal and Torres Strait islander peoples, solve the difficult work plan. Contact center's headquarters in the capital city of Canberra, Australia in all there are more than 1000 community service network, and providing the services up to more than 70. The agency is one of the maintasks by family and community service entrust annuities, responsible for the annuities registration, expenses declaration and notice to extend, work has been do family, and is responsible for collecting summary the national pension for release information. The contact center set up, so the government from multifarious specific affairs freed, formed a from the central to local, from the city to the country, from the community to the family of social service but sure. Of course, the gap between the urban and rural development in Australia and New Zealand also exist, capital and talents, public resources also easy to flow from rural to urban, with the rural public service, the aging behind and so on a series of phenomenon. In Australia, due to the vast, small population, environmental complex, diverse geographical society, many places are remote, some even and population deprived areas, lack of community service and transportation facilities, education and employment opportunity less, the farmers' living often feel lonely and helpless, average every four days farmers to suicide.
Four, Australia, new grassroots social management experience of inspiration and reference due to different conditions, and we cannot copy their model, but the idea of public service and some management way, to China's rural basic management and rural community construction has the certain enlightenment and reference significance:
One is to develop all kinds of rural folk organization. Australia, new development in the process of the countryside, agriculture, pay great attention to play the role of rural of all kinds association. Australia, for example, the country's agricultural association has a history of over 140 years. At present, there are all kinds of national agricultural association, the member of 2 million people, spread over, not only city suburbs have, and remote the mutually, and diverse forms. Association variety, service life of both association, also have production service association; Both labor cooperation, also has the capital stock of cooperation. The scale of the association also size is differ, there are ten to door of composition, also have thousands or even thousands of families of composition. Both the national association, such as New Zealand meat animal husbandry association; Also have local, such as Melbourne grain producers federation. Association by the council for the management, and council members according to the provisions of the articles, regular elections, collective decision cooperatives important issues, each member of the association in all affairs an equal say. The profits according to the general association members and an association between the business volume for distribution. Association for membership will purchase agricultural materials, reduce the cost of production; www.liuxuelunwen.org/azlxlw/ Introduction of new varieties and technology, guidelines for farmers to improve product quality and production; Through the training, education activities, improve the environmental community, etc. So association in to help farmers solve the difficulty in production, increasing the farmers' income, improvement of farmers' quality of life has played an important role, can say farmers can leave the government, but can't leave association. Due to the association developed, the Australian government to farmers, many public services are folk organization entrusted to finish, it increases the government administrative efficiency, reduce the administrative cost also contributes to the small government the pattern of the big society.
2 it is to develop all kinds of volunteer organization. In Australia and New Zealand, volunteer service career has become one of the people conscious effort, everywhere is visible to different kinds of volunteers. They in the social affairs, in the daily life of the residents have have a role to play, they to to ease of social contradictions, and promote harmonious ethnic group, small to solve life difficult for farmers, do psychological counseling, and other play a positive role. In Australia and New Zealand, more than 30% of the people participate in volunteer service, these volunteers to help others, and to participate in social public welfare activities as a kind of of spirit to meet and self value realization ways, and expected nothing in return. And in our country, especially in the rural areas, volunteer service is not common, or some place no real development, develop the rural community construction of the key point is to vigorously promote rural volunteer service, it needs the government to guide the ah.
3 it is the government's public service and public policy must extend to the rural areas and tilt. In order to alleviate gap between urban and rural areas, the Australian government made many efforts, such as the ascension of all kinds of personnel in remote areas of the salary, and some can even higher than a times above city; Open numerous preferential conditions, the applicant to attract immigrants in remote areas services; Hire folk organization or personnel for the dispersed of farmers provide public services, farmers to listen to opinions and demands, and in government and farmers set up between the bridge and the link; Organize regular medical and health personnel to remote areas for farmers to offer medical treatment to serve, etc. These practices for we all have a certain significance.



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