澳洲留学生论文——RFID在道路交通信息实时采集系统中的应用:RFID application in real-time

澳洲留学生论文——RFID在道路交通信息实时采集系统中的应用:RFID application in real-time

来源:liuxuelunwen.org作者:yangcheng发布时间:2014-08-04 14:55
本文是一篇澳洲留学论文,为实现城市道路的路段及交叉路口的交通流量的统计、行驶机动车辆的监管、交通拥堵状况的缓解,提出采用非接触式、自动化识别、双向通信的射频识别技术对路网
为实现城市道路的路段及交叉路口的交通流量的统计、行驶机动车辆的监管、交通拥堵状况的缓解,提出采用非接触式、自动化识别、双向通信的射频识别技术对路网上的行驶车辆进行实时信息采集和数据信息交互。并结合GPRS、WiFi、ZigBee等物联网无线传感网络技术将获取的信息发送到后台信息处理中心,再将数据信息通过GPS或交通诱导信息系统提供给交通参与者,使其合理选择最优路径快速、准确到达目的地。研究结果表明,采用RFID技术应用于实时动态交通信息采集是比较可行的,将RFID技术与物联网技术相结合应用于智能交通,为智能交通物联网的发展和实现提供一定的思路。
 
Abstract: To achieve urban road sections and the statistical intersection traffic flow, driving motor vehicle regulation, traffic congestion mitigation, proposed the use of non-contact, automated identification, two-way communication radio frequency identification technology right path of moving vehicles in real-time online information collection and data information exchange. Combined with GPRS, WiFi, ZigBee and other things wireless sensor network technology to get the information sent to the background information processing center, then the data information through GPS or traffic guidance information system available to transport participants to choose the best path to a reasonable fast, accurate destination. The results show that the use of RFID technology in real-time dynamic traffic information collection is more feasible, RFID technology will be combined with the complex networking technology used in intelligent transportation, intelligent transportation of things for the development and implementation to provide some ideas.
 
Urban road network and its main road intersection traffic running status in large extent dominated the whole urban road network traffic running state degree of excellence. Urban road network in the real-time traffic information collection is intelligent transportation iot system can realize rapid and effective traffic control and management, the basis of the information service [1]. Intelligent transportation iot is the sensor technology, RFID technology, wireless communication technology, data processing technology, network technology, automatic control technology, video detection technology, GPS information technology such as comprehensive use in the whole transportation management system, so as to establish a real-time, accurate, and efficient transportation network integrated management and control system. By road and the intersection of the installed sensors, roadside detection equipment, such as traffic monitoring management center can get the real-time dynamic traffic information, can rise to monitor the traffic situation and effective control of traffic flow; Through the vehicle terminal equipment and car and roadside equipment, traffic participants can real-time dynamic interaction with the surrounding information sources, and access to real-time traffic information, to provide reliable basis to change the route traffic participants, traffic route guidance effect [2]; Or remind on this stretch of road traffic participants is illegal, warning effect. The first intelligent transportation people with cars, people will have to be linked with road, the car can not be linked with road in real time communication, through the intelligent transportation iot will take place among people, vehicles, road information real-time interaction, mutual synergy effect, realize intelligent transportation of things. 
 
RFID technology is the key technology of the intelligent transportation of things, is also relatively fast development of technology over the past few years. And past video recognition technology, buried coil, compared to traffic information collection technology such as microwave radar, RFID technology has more advantages. It can be the images through the electronic license plate with the RFID electronic tag [3], in the form of ID number, deposit into an electronic tag, in the road network distribution of RFID testing equipment (reader) can be equipped with an electronic tag to pass the road vehicles to identity information and location information [4], and other traffic information (such as the number of vehicles, vehicle location, elapsed time, speed, etc.) of the collection, and can realize automatic penalty fee, automatic to investigate and punish illegal vehicles, recording function such as illegal information [5]. 
 
The importance of traffic information collection based on the current, and can be used to obtain the information for the intelligent management of motor vehicles services, solve the traffic problems provide some basis for the traffic congestion, this paper compares the commonly used several kinds of traffic information collection and monitoring method, are obtained using RFID technology to real-time dynamic traffic information collection, the advantages of RFID information storage, borrow the advantage of RFID on the road network and put forward intersection traffic information collection, and to establish the framework of the system model and the critical path. 
 
1 The RFID technology in the application of the intelligent transportation iot 
 
1.1 summary of RFID 
 
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification, RFID) technology, with rf communications is a non-contact automatic Identification technology (hereinafter referred to as "RFID"), it has two-way communication. RFID technology mainly include: the characteristics of non-contact, two-way communication with location, long-term tracking management and all-weather information collection, etc, and it is less affected by the environment. RFID technology combined with such as the Internet, communication technology, which can realize global item tracking and information sharing. 
 
RFID is a use of electronic tag data acquisition system [6]. RFID is usually consists of three major parts: the RFID reader, electronic tags (RFID) card and antenna. Electronic tag is the RFID system data carrier. The RFID electronic tag general installation in the windshield of the vehicle or on the motor plate. Complete rf signal transmitting and receiving antenna works. RFID working principle can be described as: when a motor vehicle with the RFID electronic tag into the frequency emitted by the RFID reader range, made by the RFID reader's information through electronic tag antenna to send encrypted data carrier, the electronic label of the transmitting antenna working area is activated, at the same time will be encrypted with encryption high frequency carrier signal of target identification using a modulation mode high frequency launch module out inside the card, to the electronic label itself carries information transmitted to the RFID reader, readers receive and decode, will extract the available identification number and then transferred to the background processing work, complete the pre-set functions. As shown in figure 1: 
 
1.2 the RFID application in intelligent transportation iot 
 
RFID technology is one of the key technologies of Internet of things, it is the basis for the Internet of things perception layer. RFID as the basis of perception layer, play a role of the underlying information collection, information collection and provide the basis for subsequent processing and information service. RFID technology mainly include: the characteristics of non-contact, two-way communication with location, long-term tracking management and all-weather information collection, etc, and it is less affected by the environment. Therefore RFID technology in the intelligent transportation iot has good application prospect. 
 
The earliest RFID is applied to recognize by the United States during world war ii allied with the enemy's aircraft, due to the RFID has the advantages of easy to recognize, inability to manipulate the content, has a good application in logistics industry. In terms of transportation, RFID is now mainly used in the bus radio frequency card, parking fee (ETC), entrance guard system, parking management, intelligent traffic signal control, bus or special vehicle positioning and electronic bus stop, the traffic flow detection, traffic route guidance, electronic license plate, ETC. [7]. Now RFID application in the field of traffic more mature in China mainly include the bus radio frequency card, no parking fees (ETC), entrance guard system management and so on. According to the traffic on the feasibility of RFID [8], the RFID technology is applied to intelligent transportation system in the real-time dynamic traffic basic attribute information collected is has certain advantages. 
 
1.3 commonly used sampling method to compare with the RFID feasibility analysis 
 
At present, both at home and abroad for real-time traffic information collection and processing are the main technology of electromagnetic induction of the annular coil vehicle detection technique, the doppler sensor microwave (radar), vehicle inspection technology of video vehicle detection technology [9] and radio frequency identification technology (RFID) [10-11], etc. In the traffic information collection methods, the annular coil vehicle detection technology, the microwave vehicle detection technology can be on different lanes of traffic, road to share, to collect the information such as average speed, but the fundamental attribute information of the vehicles is difficult to collect. Video vehicle detection technology for motor vehicles on the road traffic information can be generated by the collection, and but also realize the all-weather information acquisition, but it is also affected by the climate condition limit and its accuracy, reliability of gathering information. Use of RFID technology, not only can the information such as traffic flow, average speed of all-weather collection, but also can realize the information acquisition of basic properties of the vehicle, in these respects, RFID has obvious advantages. Table 1 compare the advantages and disadvantages of several kinds of traffic information collection method (12-13). 
 
The feasibility of RFID can from the following several aspects to discuss: 1) RFID has high technical maturity. Applied in intelligent transportation of RFID tags generally adopts the active, the read and write distance and large data storage capacity, can be two-way communication; 2) the high cost of RFID technology, but applied to intelligent transportation, its costs and benefits received is proportional to the relationship, so the cost is also worth it; 3) RFID security performance is good, high confidentiality. General electronic tags are encrypted, she may not arbitrarily tampering content after put into use. On the one hand, can improve the security line, on the other hand, can the driver related information confidential measures. 
 
1.4 the RFID system selection 
 
The RFID system generally by matching electronic tag, reader, antenna, etc. Electronic label options: in order to choose the appropriate electronic label, need to consider the frequency, reading and writing technique, power supply, memory, read distance, shape and environment conditions of labels and other technical parameters. 
 
According to the requirement of the use of environment and technology, must consider reader work frequency, output power and output port, the readers form, the antenna matching and other technical parameters. 
 
L) working frequency: the work frequency of the reader and electronic tag; 2) power output: the output power of the reader must conform to the use of countries or regions for wireless transmission power of licensing standards, to serve the needs of human health and so on; 3) output port: can choose according to need RS232 and RS485, RJ45, such as the wireless network interface type of one or more; 4) the reader forms: consider to choose fixed reader or handheld reader; 5) matched antenna: reader selected after also need to consider the type and amount of matching antenna. 
 
Typical working frequency: 125, 133, 13.56, 27.12, 433, 902 ~ 928 KHZ, 2.45 GHz, 5. SGHz, etc. The specific parameters are shown in table 2. 
 
To sum up, the urban road traffic information in real time acquisition system in the RFID system is adopted by the working frequency of 915 MHZ, passive passive electronic tags, reader using RS232 serial port communication. 
 
2 Information real-time acquisition system framework and implementation method of the module 
 
RFID in road traffic information collection system design framework consists of the following several parts: the bottom of the data collection layer, network layer, application and management center and processing center. The underlying information collection includes base station unit and vehicle information unit; Network and processing center covers the base station and data processing center, traffic management and control center data processing and network communication mode between; Application and management center is to handle the release of information to data application, record and management and so on a series of measures to the release of the center. The frame is shown in figure 2. 
 
Each equipped with RFID electronic tag of vehicles, its basic attribute information including license plate number, vehicle type, vehicles, vehicle owners, color through the information such as time, vehicle inspection situation through the establishment of the database and to store data information effectively, and for the subsequent illegal vehicles, speeding cars, criminal suspects and other data information matching, corresponding to management, punishment and control measures. And here is the Microsoft SQL Server 2005 software platform to build the database information. As shown in table 2 vehicle basic attribute information database. 
 
2.1 the bottom information acquisition layer 
 
System framework of the key stratum is the bottom of the information collection, it is mainly composed of two parts: the base unit, vehicle information units. The bottom of the general collection of traffic information collection layer basic information are: vehicle body carries information, vehicle location information, traffic statistics, and so on. And carry the information for vehicle body basically has: license plate number, vehicle type, vehicle owners, vehicles, vehicle inspection through time. Vehicle location information, namely the positioning of the vehicle, can be "connected" to determine which local interval, vehicles entered the RFID reader installed density determines the precision of positioning. Base station unit including the base station server, RFID readers, the RFID antenna, etc.; Vehicle information units include: RFID electronic tag, GPS navigator, broadcast receivers, etc. And the working frequency of the RFID electronic tag parameters can choose 915 MHZ, for passive electronic tags, on the one hand, reduce the cost, on the other hand can protect the security of electronic tag carries information. Base station units as shown in figure 3. 
 
The realization of the function modules: the urban road network and the main road intersection points RFID reader acquisition equipment, vehicle location, by putting according to the principle of RFID technology can be achieved via mutual communication between reader and electronic tag on the vehicle body carries information collection (license plate number, vehicle type, vehicle owners, vehicles through time, annual inspection, etc.), collected information in the base station server archive into the record. The archive into a car's information recorded at the same time, is a corresponding increase in traffic, this section and intersection traffic flow information is obtained through this way. And vehicle location information for may, according to preliminary determine the density of RFID equipment putting local scope, using TDOA (arrival time delay difference) locating method for vehicle positioning, vehicle location information is obtained. 
 
2.2 network layer and processing center 
 
Information collection is the bottom of the whole system and the network layer and processing center is to get the information from the underlying collection through wireless communication methods (WiFi, GPRS, GSM, etc.) to the background processing center, combined with advanced information technology in the intelligent transportation iot, computer technology, data fusion technology and equipment for processing, after processing the information again to the traffic management and control center. 
 
The realization of the function modules: collection of information transfer process from the initial interaction between electronic tag and reader, to the reader with the transfer of a base station, and from a base station can data by GPRS wireless sensor network, WiFi, GSM to background processing center, using the data fusion, computer technology and information technology based on the background has documented a set of program execution due to the extraction of useful information and processing, to complete the realization of the function of presupposition. Arrive by TDOA (time delay difference) principle and some algorithms combining operation data of the location, function the positioning of the vehicle location, map matching combined with GIS technology, determine the final position of vehicles. 
 
2.3 the application layer and management center 
 
The bottom of the first two stages and information acquisition and processing center and network layer the final purpose is for application and management center, service. It is associated with the traffic management and control center, and treatment center layer was sent from the network of road traffic information, through real-time dynamic traffic management and control center released out. 
 
The realization of the function modules: for the average load of motor vehicles with GPS, can use small FM broadcast by a specific radio frequency broadcast, to convey information to traffic participants. Without installing GPS devices of motor vehicles or installed on the main road and the intersection of traffic information system induction of variable message sign board to the front section of road traffic information, traffic information guidance and dynamic route guidance, for traffic information can rapid, accurate and efficient in the first in the service of traffic participants, for traffic participants to provide certain reference for subsequent decision, also can give a road and intersection congestion management provide certain help. 
 
3 Summary 
 
1) traffic information collection methods will be in the form of a list, it is concluded that RFID technology advantages and prospect of application in traffic information collection, and through its security and confidentiality, the cost is high and low analysis the feasibility of the application of RFID technology. 
 
2) based on RFID technology in intelligent traffic information acquisition put forward the thinking and a way to build data collection framework and the methods of realization of each function module, refer to the Internet of things of wireless sensor network technology in communication methods to realize remote information interaction mode. 
 
3) real-time dynamic traffic information acquisition needs in a certain experimental platform for test, so late work will be structures, experimental platform, the test data collection, set up the database system platform of associated with the system, the intelligent transportation information collection can extend to a more intelligent, highly efficient, real time, rapidness, etc. 
 
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