英国留学coursework代写:国际贸易与国际投资关系的分析International Trade and Forei

英国留学coursework代写:国际贸易与国际投资关系的分析International Trade and Forei

来源:www.liuxuelunwen.org作者:meisishow发布时间:2013-10-30 15:13
With the going out strategy, implementation and promotion , foreign direct investment in UK businesses continue to expand the scale and scope , the increasing number of overseas institutions . According to the 2006 Statistical Bulletin of British for

With the " going out" strategy, implementation and promotion , foreign direct investment in UK businesses continue to expand the scale and scope , the increasing number of overseas institutions . According to the 2006 Statistical Bulletin of British foreign direct investment , as of the end of 2006 , the United Kingdom more than 5,000 investors in the territory of foreign direct investment enterprises established nearly ten thousand were distributed in 172 countries ( regions ) , foreign direct investment stock $ 90.63 billion . At the same time , international trade and foreign direct investment into the relationship between the public issues of common concern , conclusions from empirical research to see there are two main perspectives : foreign direct investment decreased ( alternative ) trade ; international direct investment increased ( complementary ) trade.

随着“走出去”战略的实行和推进,英国公司的对外直接投资规模和范围不断扩张,国外机构数目不断增多。据2006年英国对外直接投资计数公报显露,截止2006年根,英国5000多家道内投资主体成立对外直接投资公司近万家,共散布在全世界172个国度(地区),对外直接投资存有的数量906.3亿美圆。
 
Foreign-related empirical research
国外相关实证研究
( one ) substitutes
(一)替代关系
 
Alternative model was first proposed by Robert Mundell (1957) suggested that he was under the standard HOS theorem, that if two identical production functions , then the international trade and foreign direct investment are completely replaced. Adler and Stevens (1974) based on firm-level data for the United States in 1966 in Canada, Germany, Japan's overseas production and exports of the parent company conducted a statistical comparative analysis, found that overseas subsidiaries and the parent company's export sales negatively correlated and, therefore, support the alternative relationship . Svensson (1996) that the home countries of foreign production for export of final products with the substitution effect , but also to promote the exports of intermediate goods , but the net effect is an alternative . Belderbos and Sleuwaegen (1998) studied the Japanese FDI in Europe, influencing factors , and its conclusion is also supported by the substitution effect of FDI and exports . Helpman Melitz and Yeaple (2004) with 38 countries, 52 industries analyzed data export and FDI relationship between sales , also found a relationship between the two alternatives .
代替板型最早由Robert Mundell(1957)提出,他依据标准的H-O-S定理,觉得假如两国的出产函数相同,那末国际商业活动和国际直接投资之间是绝对代替的。Adler和Stevens(1974)基于公司层面的数值,对美国1966年在加拿大、德国、东洋的国外出产和母企业的出口额施行了计数比较剖析,发觉国外子企业的销行和母企业的出口负有关,因为这个也支持代替关系。
 
( Two ) complementary relationship
 
In comparison, the complementary relationship between the two got more confirmed. According to examine the different objects can be roughly divided into three levels: national, industry and enterprise .
 
1 to states of objects. Bergsten et al (1978 ) found that U.S. exports and foreign direct investment are positively correlated . Blomstrom, Lipsey and Kulchycky (1988) with the United States and Sweden 1978-1982 years of data for research , they both studied the level of exports has studied the changes in export and found that instead of changing the level of exports with exports , the complementary effect is more prominent. Agarwal et al (1994 ) found that Germany and Japan 1989-1992, foreign direct investment and exports and imports of a positive correlation , while the U.S. here 's foreign direct investment and trade relationship is much weaker . Eaton and Tamura (1994) used the United States and Japan from 1985 to 1990 data , found that Japanese data showed foreign direct investment and future export a greater correlation between the U.S. foreign direct investment and exports of the past reciprocity between the larger and presumably this phenomenon is because Japan's foreign direct investment is cost -oriented , and U.S. foreign direct investment is market-oriented reasons. Pfaffermayr (1994) using Granger causality tests and analysis of Austria 's foreign direct investment and exports , find a complementary relationship exists between these variables , and there is a two-way causality. Lin (1995) analyzed the use of English in Taiwan import equations for Indonesia, Malaysia , Philippines and Thailand 's direct investment in four Asian countries and found that the presence of foreign direct investment for export complementary effects . Tamim Bayoumi and Gabrielle Lipworth (1998) studied the Japanese foreign direct investment, domestic and foreign fixed investment and exchange rate relationships. Article uses the Japanese FDI flows and East Asia , North America, Europe, the top 20 trading partners, bilateral data , to analyze the determinants of FDI and the impact on trade . The results showed that: foreign direct investment is made in Japan to promote investment and exchange rates , and foreign direct investment have a temporary impact on exports and imports have lasting impact. They also believe that Japan's foreign direct investment will lead to changes in Japan's trade structure . Hejazi and Safarian (2001) used the gravity model , the use of the United States and 51 trading partners between 1982-1994 bilateral trade data, validating the United States in international direct investment and trade relations. The results show that foreign direct investment in the United States a greater impact on exports and foreign direct investment, a greater impact on imports . In addition, the study also found that foreign direct investment in the manufacturing sector for exports and imports have to create effects, and foreign direct investment in services exports have only creation effect . Oscar (2001) Spain 1977-1998 season of the year according to the data , using Granger causality test , analysis of foreign direct investment and exports, the relationship between the results of the complementary relationship , Granger causality test results indicate that in the short term Foreign direct investment in promoting exports , in the long term memory in a two-way Granger causality. Joshua Aizenman and Ilan Noy (2006) used the 207 countries and regions, foreign direct investment and trade data, the development of these countries are divided into two categories of English and industrialized countries , empirical studies have found that the correlation coefficient of trade and FDI in developing English country is significantly positive , whereas in industrialized countries is less obvious. In addition, Granger causality test found that despite the presence of two-way relationship, but the effects of FDI on trade is larger than the effect of trade to FDI .
 
2 to the industry as the research object . Lipsey and Weiss (1981) used the U.S. 14 industry -sectional data are found positive effects of exports , and found that , if the host country for the development of English , then the complementary effect is more prominent. Lee (1994) found that foreign direct investment and trade relations between the type of FDI will vary with different cost -oriented FDI complementary effect than the market -oriented foreign direct investment stronger . Bernard and Jenson (1999) measured the 1984-1992 U.S. productivity in manufacturing companies and found that exporters than non- exporters exhibit higher productivity and high production efficiency of enterprises easier transition for exporters . Hejazi and Safarian (2001) using the gravity model , using the U.S. and 51 trading partners in bilateral trade between the 1982-1994 data , the study found manufacturing foreign direct investment for exports and imports have to create effects, and foreign direct investment in services only with creation effect on exports .
 
3 enterprise as research object . Lipsey and Weiss (1984), Rugman (1990), Grubert and Mutti (1991) that foreign direct investment through different channels to increase the total demand for the final product parent , ie , foreign direct investment will lead to increased trade .
 
Sung-Hoon Lim and Hwy-Chang Moon (2001) the use of South Korean firm-level data , confirming foreign direct investment for the home country 's exports have a positive effect , but the effect in the less developed host countries than in developed host country stronger, especially if overseas branches are relatively new, and the investment industry in the home country in a downward phase .
 
Girma and Kneller (2003) use Onesource and ELIOS two databases provided by the United Kingdom 5332 corporate data , using data includes different companies at different points in employment , physical capital , the number of output cost of sales , cross-border activities and sales revenue the data is divided into the following three categories of the domestic enterprises do not export their own businesses, all national and foreign export and domestic multinational enterprises . Productivity measure is used in a non-parametric index Caves , with the statistical distribution of dominant concepts will be arranged productivity , the use of non-parametric statistical tests conducted bilateral and multilateral , multinational productivity distribution that dominated the export company and export company productivity distribution dominant in non- exporting companies , overall foreign investment both for international trade play a catalytic role . Keith Head and John Ries (2003) to 1070 publicly traded Japanese manufacturing companies into four groups : only serve the domestic market and serve the international market but not foreign investment, exports and foreign investment , but they do not export , from publicly listed companies financial statements to obtain export , international business activities, sales , product procurement, raw material procurement, depreciable assets , labor costs and other micro-data for a variety of enterprise productivity level is calculated and verified using two methods: the first one is for all types of enterprises within the industry average productivity of comparison , that is the mean of all enterprises to reduce the productivity of the industry average , the mean value of the logarithmic scale , personnel logarithm logarithmic output compare ; second for the different types of virtual enterprise belongs assigned value and productivity and scale variables regression . Checking the results mean scale variables significantly support domestic enterprises to smaller scale than 19% of export enterprises -33% , export and foreign -invested enterprises exported class enterprises larger than 105% -332%, TFP verification result is not significant , ATFP verify the same results, but the difference was less investment and export company rate than exports Corporation 4 % -10%. The sequence of the scale variable regression results and the results are also significant support ATFP complementary theories . Lipsey and Ramstetter (2003) using the Japanese multinational firm-level data to study the Japanese foreign direct investment for export , the results also support the complementary relationship.
 
Domestic empirical research
 
Domestically, because Britain is a net inflow of foreign countries , so trade effects on international direct investment research mainly focuses on import and export of foreign capital inflows for the British influence . With economic development in recent years, foreign direct investment in the UK has developed rapidly , the British foreign direct investment has also been studied in depth .
 
Cai Rui and Liu Quan ( 2004 ) based on Kiyoshi Kojima "marginal industry theory", developed from the British investment and British investment in two perspectives of non- developed countries , the use of ridge regression method , for 1990-1999 British foreign direct investment the trade effects of the empirical research results indicate that direct investment in the United Kingdom imports of developed countries have a certain role in promoting , but of little use, and export the relationship was not significant ; Britain's accumulated direct investment in non- developed countries for imports no significant effect , while the exports to some extent.
 
Zhangru Qing ( 2005 ) integrated use of cointegration theory , error correction model and Granger causality test and other methods, for 1982-2002 between the British Foreign direct investment and export studied the relationship between the results showed that export Foreign direct investment is the reason for the change , and the import and export of foreign direct investment is not reason for the change , substitution or on trade promotion obvious.
 
This item Wu ( 2005 ) based on the gravity model, using synthetic data regression method , the British 1999-2001 British Trade Effects of Foreign Direct Investment empirical analysis , the main conclusions are: British direct investment in the host country to promote the British the host country 's exports , but imports from the host country does have substitution effect .
 
Chen Shiqing ( 2006 ) using international comparative methods, empirical studies of the Western countries and the United Kingdom the differences on this issue , the article selected the United States, Japan, Germany , Britain, France and the United Kingdom in 1979-2003 between foreign direct investment and international the annual trade data for the empirical research results show that the UK 's foreign direct investment on international trade was not significant between the two there was no significant causal relationship does not exist between the two long-term and stable relationship .
 
Conclusion
 
As can be seen from the above analysis of international trade and foreign direct investment in understanding the relationship between the constant improvement in depth , although not yet formed a unified conclusion , but different scholars have different perspectives and ideas for future research has laid a good foundation. You can explore from the following aspects :
 
First, in recent years the development of English national and international direct investment, international trade developments are very fast, but to develop the country for the study of English literature is relatively scarce . Developing countries in the British national trade and international direct investment background , motives and their own conditions and the developed countries there is a big difference, but the object of study is still extant literature developed mainly for the development of the British national significance is limited. Therefore, the development of the British national research needs to be further expanded and deepened .
 
Second, because the vast majority of developing countries, the British net foreign capital inflow country , the development of the British national research focused on a country 's foreign direct investment in the home country on the impact of foreign trade , especially for the host country to host the impact of the lack of concern developed , to be to be further explored.
 
Third, the English international trade and direct investment relationship research stays at the national level , industry and enterprise level less literature , this may be due to difficulties in data acquisition . But ultimately rely on micro-level macro target specific practice to achieve, so the British micro-level studies need to be further strengthened.
 
References:

1 CAI Rui, Liu Quan . Britain's international direct investment and trade are complementary to do ? - Kiyoshi Kojima on the "marginal industry theory" Empirical Analysis [J]. World Economy , 2004
2 Zhang Ruqing British Foreign Direct Investment and Foreign Trade Relations Analysis [J]. World Economy , 2005
3 items of the military . Trade Effects of Foreign Direct Investment Research [J]. Zhongnan University , 2006
4 Chen Shiqing . Foreign Direct Investment and Export: An Empirical Comparative Study [J]. Financial Theory and Practice , 2006



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