Art Essay on History of Graphic Design

Art Essay on History of Graphic Design

来源:http://www.liuxuelunwen.org作者:hongdou发布时间:2015-04-27 10:45
本论文以平面设计历史为主题,大致可分为两个部分:上半部分主讲平面设计的由来,经过的历程;下半部分则讲述平面设计的发展,尤其是20世纪以后人类进入计算机时代。
平面设计的历史论文
 
本论文可分为两个部分,上半部分主要讲述平面设计是人类用书写方式表达的开端。在漫长的发展历史当中,可发现早期的平面图形是人类祖先利用如骨头等尖利的工具,将草图勾画在岩石壁上,经修改,再雕刻至帆布或天花板之上。后半部分则主在讲述随着时代的发展,科技水平不断提升,人类迎来了电子计算机时代。从此,平面设计也随即商业化,由人工雕刻变为纯计算机操作。
 
Art Essay on History of Graphic Design
 
Mankind’s very first written word happened to be the start of Graphic Design with its native land being none other than antique caves and grottos! The very initial symbol they had drafted in cave drawings, paintings, as well as markings on ivory, boulders and bone are the primary indication and proof whereby graphic design was not only born, but also nursed, nourished and produced! Nonetheless, the phrase Graphic Design was labeled by William Addison Dwiggins at the beginning of the 20th Century.
 
Graphic design’s history reverts to drawings on cave walls along with decorations on pottery. Apparently, graphic designers have put a spark in their stuff to attract their clients or outlining pages for writing provided that words have been jotted down while at the same time, the advertising of their merchandise has taken place; nonetheless, the recognized history of graphic design-denoting the phrase “graphic design” along with the profession, which has since developed-happened in the beginning of the 20th century. This is when the professional term “graphic designer” acquired popularity in not only book design, but also general print design, making it hard to pinpoint just who coined the phrase.
 
Anthropologists researching prehistoric eras on cave paintings direct us before the Upper Paleolithic era from 40,000 up to 10,000 B.C., when our ancestors were studying how to sketch signs and symbols, which could be communed visually; additionally, they were effective on leaving their marks. Evidently, the initiators of graphic design are out very own ancestors, who had stayed in the caves and designed their sketches on rocks.  This is a clear indication that graphics design’s history goes way back to our own forefathers of earliest period when civilization was refined in caves, and they placed their drawings, as well as their sketches for us to see not just on their canvas of cavern walls, but also on the ceilings.
 
The most primitive drawings known in modern times originate from the last 6,000 years ago, which comprise of carved stone, as well as pottery containers. Apparently, the drawings contained within the Egyptian pyramids with letters, signs and symbols are known to art lovers and it takes us back 5000 years.  Additionally, from 600-250 BC development on geometrical structures and shapes in Europe played a significant role in the evolution of sketching and designing. An example of an applied art, which coordinates text and images for an endeavor of visual communication; “The Book of Kells” a replica of the Christian Bible, which was handwritten and established in the 9th century AD by Irish monks with rich designs is an ideal example of graphic design evolution.
 
Johannes Gensfleisch Gutenberg, who was a German metal-worker, as well as an inventor, initiated a printing technology permitting the re-utilization of individual letters. “The Incunabula” was the initial book, which was produced by Gutenberg press. This book turned out to be the standard within the history of book publishing and printing and was an enormous leap for not only printing, but also publication; despite the fact that block stamping on paper sheets along with text and symbols carved, was already being applied in Asia and Europe long before 14th century.  Nonetheless, this era’s Graphic design was formatting and at the modern time, it has been referred to as Old Style graphic design.  Unfortunately, the era of Guttenberg’s graphic design development was lethargic till the 19th century when in Britain the dissection created between applied art and fine art enhanced this development, and they effectively published a number of the most significant graphic design products by means of the Arts movement. As a result, William Morris made a lot of profit of publishing books using stylish printings and played a significant role in not only attracting the potential market, but also commercializing graphic design.  Additionally, William turned out to be the founder of the separation of fine arts and commercial design.
 
Piet Mondrian is yet another painter originating from the 19th century whose innovation has significantly impacted today’s contemporary graphic designer. In spite of Piet not being a graphic designer, his utilization of grids happened to be the root of modern day advertisement, which is referred to as the grid system; extensively utilized by graphic designer of the century today.  The classical style’s decadence resulted in modern graphic design involved in the beginning of the 20th century, using designs inspired by fine arts. Sans-serif typeface happens to be the trademark of early on modern fonts. In 1928, Jan Tschichold wrote a book named “New Typography” that systemized modern typography philosophy.
 
Beside, the inventors of contemporary graphic design are still believed to be typographers like Herbert Bayer, El Lissitzky and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy considers that they created a new base for typography building methods and stylizing. Contemporary computer technology has transformed typography production in general; however, for the experimental, as well as evolutionary technique, their contribution was substantially recognizable.  The growing and thriving era of graphic design was following World War II since the economy of America flourished, graphic design’s demand, especially for packaging and advertisement sectors thrived.
 
Some examples of the culture of applied graphic design along with its impact include I Love NY advertisement campaign (1973) together with a famed Bob Dylan poster (1968) invented by Milton Glaser. In the early 20th century, developments in graphic design were mostly galvanized by technological growth in photography and also in printing.  However, at the mid of the 20th century, the advancing of the computer periodically in graphic design has experienced little backwards since early computers were much weaker with limited computer memory. But in the end of the 20th century, the immeasurable development of computers along with its corresponding technologies led to the evolution of modern graphic design into a business, which is performed almost completely on computers.  The advent of desktop publishing together with the initiation of software applications such as Illustrator and PageMaker in mid 1980, introduced an age of designers into computer image manipulation, as well as 3D image creation. Apparently, computer graphic design makes it possible for instant effects of typography or layout changes.
 
Presently, the visual aspect of graphic design is produced within the rich land of computer ground, which is fertilized with newer software and hardware technologies. All over the world, graphic designers Plough using computers affluent with the new gizmos and gadgets, information and communication, hardware and software, academic and technology and are creating the modern history of graphic design within their design laboratories.  Express expansion of the scientific industry is making assurances for more advancement in the future while present day designers are contributing not only their name, but also their effort by means of their creativity for the coming generation.



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