拉丁美洲历史 Latin American History

拉丁美洲历史 Latin American History

来源:www.liuxuelunwen.org作者:cinq发布时间:2016-03-12 09:37
本文是美国本科作业,主要内容是通过阅读资料来回答四个关于拉丁美洲历史的问题。
拉丁美洲历史 Latin American History
 
1) What are the major legacies of European colonization in the “Americas” from 1492 to 1820? You might break your outline into several topics, i. e. political, demographic, social/cultural, religious, economic, labor, conflict/exchange etc. What was gained and what was lost in the process of creating “Latin America”? What, from your perspective, are the three most important legacies of conquest and colonization in the Americas?
 
我认为欧洲殖民给美洲带来的历史遗产主要体现在,文化,经济和劳动力三个方面。欧洲的殖民统治,导致了当地已相当发达的阿兹特克文明和印加文明的彻底毁灭,由于众多外来移民来到美洲,使得美洲的文化逐步变成了一种独特的杂交型文化。
 
The major legacies of European colonization in the “Americas” from 1492 to 1820 are mainly reflected in the three areas of culture, economy and labor (Jones, 2006). 
European colonization led to complete destruction of well-developed local Aztec civilization and Inca civilization, many immigrants came to America, making America's culture gradually become a unique hybrid-type culture (Jones, 2006).  
European colonization destroyed original Indian economy and ended the existing social system, European settlers began colonization in the Americas, Americas’ economy also showed the features of colonial economy, its economic development was controlled and influenced by the sovereign states.
During the period of European colonization, there was a significant reduction in the number of Native American population, the Native American people were replaced as new sources of labor by black Africans, black slaves became the most important American labor (Jones, 2006).
 
2) What has Broken Spears taught you about the Mexican vision of life and of the Spanish “conquest”? Why was Aztec religion so important in forming their notions of who and what the Spanish represented? What internal divisions and tensions within indigenous society can you discern from this text and how did these dynamics shape the outcome of the conflict with the Spanish and shape the “vision of the vanquished”
 
根据一个古老的传说,在这一年,传说中的a priest-king named Quetzalcoatl,,将从东方回来。当阿兹台克国王得知有白皮肤蓄胡须的陌生人出现在东部沿海时,他认为其中大概就有Quetzalcoatl,本人所以导致国王一开始会采取友好的态度来对待西班牙人。
 
Mexicans believe that the colonial administration was bloody and brutal, because the Spaniards massacred many locals. 
According to an ancient legend, in this year, a legendary priest-king named Quetzalcoatl would come back from the East. When the Aztec king knew that there were white-skinned strangers with beard appeared in the east coast, he thought that Quetzalcoatl must be there (Portilla, 1992). In fact, these are the Spanish conquistadors composed by 500 soldiers and led by the Spanish named Hernando Cortes. Thus the Aztec king took a friendly attitude towards the Spaniards in the beginning.
There were some internal contradictions inside the Aztec empire, for example, religious conflicts, and some nobles were willing to believe in Christianity and became a Christian. A part of the tribes were not satisfied with the Aztec empire's rule. These parts directly or indirectly helped the Spaniards in defeating the Aztec empire.
 
3) What are the major patterns of migration in Mexico that Sam Quinones found in his book, Antonio’s Gun and Delfino’s Dream? How have push and pull factors shaped migration patterns in 20th century Mexico?
 
在Antonio's gun and Delfino's Dream一书中介绍的墨西哥人移民美国的主要模式包括:an oft-seen pattern, illegal migration等等。
 
In Antonio’s Gun and Delfino’s Dream, it introduced the major patterns of migration in Mexico, including an oft-seen pattern, illegal migration and so on (Quinones, 2008). Push factors leading to Mexicans’ migration include the corruption of the Mexican government, the limited economic opportunity in Mexico. Pull factors include: the economy in the U.S. is developed, Mexicans can have better income in the U.S. to have access to food, clothing, shelter needed, also in the United States, they can obtain dignity and hope. These push and pull factors lead to an oft-seen pattern of migration in Mexico. Mexicans now living in the U. S. will help the migration to adapt to the local life in the U.S., which also leads to the illegal migration in Mexico. 
 
4) Identify the major historical currents and themes that have shaped Argentine history. How has land tenure, labor systems, economic forces, immigration and migration, class based politics, and the military left an imprint on Argentine history?  
 
军政府和民主政府的斗争构成了阿根廷历史的主题,20世纪30年代起出现军、文人交替执政局面。1982年军政府倒台。从此阿根廷政府恢复并大力推进民主化进程,民主政体逐渐巩固。
 
In July 9, 1816, the Argentine broke away from the ruling of Spanish and declared independence (Salvatore, 2004). Conflicts between the military government and the democratic government constituted the themes of Argentine history. In the 1930s, there was situation that the civilian government and the military government ruled the country in turn. In 1982, the military government fell. Since then, the Argentine government recovered and vigorously promoted the democratization process, democracy solidified gradually. Argentina is a country with a strong comprehensive national strength in Latin America. It has more complete industry categories and developed agriculture and animal husbandry. It has a population of 40.11 million. White and mestizo account for 95% of the population, they are mostly descendants of Italy and Spain. It has the land area of 2,780,400 square kilometers, it is the second largest country in Latin America. It adopts a multi-party system, there are 57 existing national parties, including the Partido Justicialista, the ruling party: the party members are mainly from the lower-middle class and it takes the union as a pillar of strength, as well as the unión cívica radical: the largest opposition party: the party members are mainly from the urban middle class. The total strength of the military is now 7.3 million. Argentina is one of the countries with the lowest military spending in South America. There is a dispute between the United Kingdom and Argentina about the Malvinas Islands, the war about sovereign rights of the Malvinas Islands between the United Kingdom and Argentina outbrok in 1982, Argentina was ultimately defeated (Salvatore, 2004). All of these have left an imprint on Argentine history.
 
References 参考文献
Jones, K. L. (2006). Resilient Cultures: America's Native Peoples Confront European Colonization. Hispanic American Historical Review, 5(86), pp. 350 - 351.
Portilla, M. L. (1992). The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico. Beacon Press.
Quinones, S. (2008). Antonio's Gun And Delfino's Dream: True Tales of Mexican Migration. University of New Mexico Press.
Salvatore, R. D. (2004). Stature, Nutrition, and Regional Convergence: The Argentine Northwest in the First Half of the Twentieth Century. Social Science History, 6(28), 297 - 324.
 
 



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