“标准化”课程的差异性探讨

“标准化”课程的差异性探讨

来源:www.liuxuelunwen.org作者:cinq发布时间:2016-05-09 09:50
本文是留学生作业,主要内容是通过各方面来探讨林中“标准化”课程的差异性。
“标准化”课程的差异性探讨
Discussion on the difference between "standards-based" and "standards-embedded" curriculum
 
标准为基础的课程和标准的嵌入式课程之间的差异体现在以下领域。
本课程是基于等级的标准,要求每个学生及时了解标准,嵌入式课程以多方面的重要问题和学生的需要为出发点的标准。
 
The difference between standards-based curriculum and standards-embedded curriculum is reflected in the following areas.
 
The Starting Point  出发点
Standards-based curriculum is based on the grade-level standard, requiring each student to understand the standard in time, standards-embedded curriculum takes the multifaceted essential question and what students need as the starting point (Rakow, 2008). 
 
Preassessment 预评价
If there is a preassessment in standards-based curriculum, it includes one or two standards, standards-embedded curriculum often covers grade-level and advanced standards of a wide range, coupled with students’ knowledge of relevant content (Rakow, 2008). 
In a standards-based classroom, language arts are separate; in a standards-embedded classroom, language arts skills are integrated (Rakow, 2008). 
 
Instruction 课程
A standards-based classroom, it adopts a direct instruction. The instruction of standards-embedded classrooms is creative and different, students’ performance is effectively supported by a standards-embedded approach (Rakow, 2008). 
 
Assessment 评估
Standards-based curriculum makes use of targeted assessments, aiming at structure and content of questions of standardized test which is imposed externally; standards-embedded curriculum takes authentic assessment, differentiated content and outcome, some of the outcome may be abstract and individualized (Rakow, 2008).
 
Teacher Role 教师的作用
In standards-based classrooms, teachers play the role of monitoring attainment towards the standards and sending the results to students and their parents; in standards-embedded classrooms, what the teachers do includes designing curriculum units, developing instructional strategies, as well as monitoring attainment of standards (Rakow, 2008).  
 
Student Self-esteem 学生的自我评价
Student in a standards-based classroom are less likely to develop self-esteem than students in a standards-embedded classroom (Rakow, 2008).
Curricular Implications of This Difference
Standards embedded-curriculum plans time for individual teachers or teams, for instance, Professional Learning Communities (Rakow, 2008). It develops instruction and materials which are more suitable for individual communities, as well as their students.
 
Reference 参考文献
Rakow, S. R. (2008).Standards-based v. standards-embedded curriculum. Gifted Child Today, 31(1), 45-49.
 



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