怎么写调查研究SURVEY RESEARCH

怎么写调查研究SURVEY RESEARCH

来源:liuxuelunwen.org作者:anne发布时间:2013-07-27 21:55
怎么写毕业论文的SURVEY RESEARCH具体写作指导 包括每个结构部分要注意的事项

 

Survey research is one of the most important areas of measurement in applied social research. The broad area of survey research encompasses any measurement procedures that involve asking questions of respondents. A "survey" can be anything from a short paper-and-pencil feedback form to an intensive one-on-one in-depth interview.调查研究是的测量应用社会研究的最重要的领域之一。调查研究的广泛领域包括测量程序,涉及的受访者提问。一个“调查”可以是任何东西,从短的纸张和铅笔反馈表一个密集的一次深入采访。
We'll begin by looking at the different types of surveys that are possible. These are roughly divided into two broad areas: 我们将开始寻找不同类型的调查,是可能的。这些粗略地分成两个广泛的领域:
Self administered – e.g. online or postal questionnaire自填 - 例如网上或邮寄问卷
When most people think of questionnaires, they think of the mail survey. There are many advantages to mail surveys. They are relatively inexpensive to administer. You can send the exact same instrument to a wide number of people. They allow the respondent to fill it out at their own convenience. But there are some disadvantages as well. Response rates from mail surveys are often very low. And, mail questionnaires are not the best vehicles for asking for detailed written responses.当大多数人认为,他们认为邮件调查问卷。邮件调查有许多优点。它们相对便宜的管理。您可以发送完全相同工具的人为数众多。他们允许答辩人在填写自己的方便。但也有一些缺点。从邮件调查响应率往往很低。而且,邮寄问卷,是不是最好的车辆要求的详细的书面答复。
Web based questionnaires are becoming more popular but require a high level of technical expertise is their design & delivery 基于Web的调查问卷正在变得越来越受欢迎,但需要很高的专业技术水平,他们的设计和交付
 

Interviewer administered – e.g telephone or structured interview 采访管理 - 如电话或结构化面试
 

Interviews are a far more personal form of research than questionnaires. In the personal interview, the interviewer works directly with the respondent. Unlike with mail surveys, the interviewer has the opportunity to probe or ask follow-up questions. And, interviews are generally easier for the respondent, especially if what is sought is opinions or impressions. Interviews can be very time consuming http://liuxuelunwen.org/dxthesis and they are resource intensive. Telephone interviews enable a researcher to gather information rapidly. Most of the major public opinion polls that are reported were based on telephone interviews. Like personal interviews, they allow for some personal contact between the interviewer and the respondent. And, they allow the interviewer to ask follow-up questions. But they also have some major disadvantages. Many people don't have publicly-listed telephone numbers. Some don't have telephones. People often don't like the intrusion of an un-solicited call and telephone interviews have to be relatively short or people will feel imposed upon. 面试是一个远超过个人比问卷调查的形式。在个人面试中,面试官直接与答辩。不像邮件调查,面试官有机会来探讨或提出跟进问题。而且,面试一般都为答辩人更容易,尤其是如果所寻求意见或印象。访谈可以是非常耗时的,他们是资源密集型。电话采访启用研究员迅速收集信息。大部分主要民意调查所报告的基础上电话采访。个人访谈一样,他们允许一些采访者与被答辩人之间的个人接触。而且,他们让面试官提出跟进问题。但他们也有一些重大缺点。很多人没有公开上市的电话号码。一些不具备电话。人们往往不喜欢的未请求的呼叫和电话采访必须要相对短或人会觉得强加于入侵。
 
 
Factors influencing choice of survey method统计调查方法的选择的影响因素
 

1. Characteristics of respondents1。受访者的特征
2。达到特定答辩的重要性
3。答案的重要性未受到污染或扭曲
4。样本大小,你需要和可能作出的反应率
5。类型的问题,你需要问
6。号的问题,你需要问
7。研究员可用资源
2. Importance of reaching a particular respondent
3. Importance of answers not being contaminated or distorted
4. Size of sample you require and the likely response rate
5. Types of questions you need to ask
6. Number of questions you need to ask
7. Resources available to the researcher
 

Types of Data Variable that can be collected using a questionnaire数据变量的类型,可以采用问卷收集


Opinion
Behaviour
Attributes (characteristics & demographics)
 

Types of question that can be used in a questionnaire/interview
 

Open ended Questions
Most appropriate for exploratory & qualitative research, when you are unsure of the responses possible or when you require a detailed answer
e.g. Why did you choose to study at WIT?
 
Quantity 
Ask respondents to identify the quantity or frequency of a variable. Suited to gathering quantitative data
 
How much many children do you have? 
How much do you spend on Food per week?
 
List Questions
Offer respondents a list of possible answers, suited when the question has a finite number of answers
e.g. Which language do you study as part of your course?
French   Italian       German         Spanish
 
Category Questions 
Designed so that respondents’ answers can only fit into only one category. Used to ascertain frequency of behaviour
e.g. How often do you go to the Doctor
Once a week 3 – 4 times a year
Once a month Once a year
 
Ranking – asks respondents to place things in order, generally from 1 – 5 with 1 being the most important and 5 being the least important. Suited to ascertaining the relative importance of factors
 
e.g
With 1 being the most important and 5 being the least important, Please identify the relative importance of the following factors to the success of a 21st Birthday Party
Music __
Food __
Venue __
Guests __
Cake __
 
Rating or Scale – used to collect opinion data. Ask respondents to rate how strongly they agree or disagree with a statement
 
The death Penalty is Justifiable under certain circumstances
Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
 
On a scale of 1- 5 , with 1 being Poor and 5 being excellent, Please rate the quality of service you received during your stay  
1 2 3 4 5
 
 
Design factors & rules that contribute to the effectiveness of a questionnaire
 
Layout of Questionnaire
Length of questionnaire, Amount of white space, One-sided only
Paper colour, Font size & Consistent formatting
Careful wording of questions
o Avoid long/double barrelled questions
o No negative questions
o No leading questions 
o Avoid ambiguous terminology
 
Clear layout and sequencing of questions
o Start with straight-forward questions & progress to more difficult
o Group similar questions together
o Do not have an overlong or cramped questionnaire
o Easy to read
 
Cover Letter
What the research is about & why it is useful
Why recipients response is required and necessary
How long it will take to complete
Promises of confidentiality or anonymity
How results will be used
Whom to contact if you have any queries, how to return and when to return by
Thank recipient for help
 
Pre-testing should be used to find out
How long questionnaire takes to complete
The clarity of instructions
Which, if any, of the questions are unclear / ambiguous
Which, if any, of the questions did the respondent not respond to for any reason
Whether the recipient felt there were any topic omissions
Whether the layout was clear and attractive
Any other comments
 
IF CHANGES ARE REQUIRED THE QUESTIONNAIRE SHOULD BE TESTED AGAIN BEFORE IT IS USED
 
Some thoughts in administering questionnaires
Pre-survey contact can increase response rate
If using postal questionnaire consider when the questionnaire is likely to be received
Return envelope - postage paid/collection 
Reminder / Follow up calls should be done after 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks 
Consider any technique that may increase response rate
READ CHAPTER 10 of TEXT!!!!!!
 
 
 



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