知识经济时代技术扩散与产业梯度转移分析Era of knowledge economy and industrial g

知识经济时代技术扩散与产业梯度转移分析Era of knowledge economy and industrial g

来源:www.liuxuelunwen.org作者:meisishow发布时间:2014-01-20 09:52论文字数:2680字
论文编号:lxlw20140118164537661论文地区:美国论文语言:English论文类型:-论文价格:150
知识经济时代,技术扩散和技术创新成为产业发展的动力引擎,产业梯度转移加速了技术扩散和技术创新的进程。我国要加快发展步伐,提高科技水平,力争在承接产业梯度转移、推进新型工业

Meaning of technology diffusion

 
The so-called technology diffusion , that is, the transfer of technology dissemination in space or process . Usually refers to the technology from the invention or discovery to the whole process of social production and life in general use in the process to achieve the technology industrialization process. Undeniably, technology diffusion path is also affected by the level of technology itself , affect the level of development of productive forces , social and cultural values ​​, and some did not continue to move forward from a technical after the invention . Diffusion of advanced technologies will produce technology spillovers . Technology spillover refers to multinational investment in the host country , the circumstances leading technology and productivity in the local overflow , the overflow is usually technology leader in bringing technology and is a manifestation of technological externalities . For example , the development of space industry since the U.S. aerospace industry to promote the development of basic science in all its aspects. Applied mathematics, high-energy physics , astronomy , astrophysics , earth science , microgravity physics, materials science, space biology, space medicine , information science , microelectronics , are accompanied by the development of the aerospace industry and grow up. Investors aerospace technology development is primarily a national , to meet the diverse needs of its developing country for aerospace products , and meet a variety of business needs at home and abroad .

Industrial gradient transfer of meaning
 
The so-called industrial gradient transfer , is the theory of industry and technology , high- gradient regions will spread and metastasis , to achieve regional economic optimization of industrial restructuring objectives in accordance with the product life cycle to the low gradient areas. American economist Vernon believes that there is a certain product and its production technology development cycle , which determines the change in production locations. Regional economic scholars such industrial production life cycle theory references to regional economics, that the establishment and development of an industrial zone also follow this general order, that is, from the young to mature , to aging. Vernon gradually shift to industrial production life cycle theory, on the one hand that economic efficiency is the primary goal , on the other hand in order to develop regional differences based on http://www.liuxuelunwen.org/usalw/ the objective existence , by optimizing the configuration space to gradually reduce regional disparities and achieve a country relatively balanced economic development .
 
Industrial gradient transfer to achieve a relative balance between the different regional economic development . High level of technology in areas often become hotbeds of technological innovation and diffusion , technology becomes an output port , have a profound impact on the surrounding area ; industrial structure , technological structure low gradient structure to enhance the region 's lack of innovation, often become technical input from high gradient to low gradient areas of industrial zones is a mature technology transfer , industrial recession , technologies and products . Therefore, it can be understood as the essence of industrial gradient transfer of industrial restructuring and upgrading , is a factor of supply and demand changes in some industries led to the transfer of industries from developed regions to economic phenomena backward region. U.S. industry began to shift from the Pearl River Delta , Yangtze River Delta and is then formed in the eastern coastal developed areas . In this case , the State presented the rise of central , western development, revitalizing the northeast old industrial base strategy , and also on the objective economic laws gradient transfer among economic and industrial coincide . From the perspective of enterprise development , the industrial gradient transfer pathway is also necessary corporate sustainability . For example , in 2006 , Ningbo Electrical Group Co., a future, taking into account the factors of domestic resource constraints , planning to diversify markets and industrial development, began to try to take advantage of the power plant engineering and construction companies in Africa 's influence with the local government in West Africa consortium economic cooperation , construction of industrial parks . Since West Africa is a resource rich , industrial base basic blank , management believes can put domestic resource class, the class of products is becoming saturated , and there in the local market needs directly into the industry , the use of local resources to develop the African market , the radiation in Europe market ; same as a link to the domestic enterprises as material procurement African supply base , thus implementing the occupation of Africa , Europe, radiation , nurturing long-term development strategy of Ningbo .
 
Technology diffusion of knowledge economy era , industrial gradient transfer of significance to economic growth
 
Era of knowledge economy is constantly agitate and spread of information technology era , economic globalization has also provided the conditions and possible diffusion of knowledge sharing and technology , not only accelerated the accumulation of knowledge and technological progress to promote cross between science and technology and integration , also promotes economic and technical cooperation between countries , and between multinational technology combined to promote the commercialization of scientific and technological achievements and high-tech industrialization. The contribution of technical progress in economic growth rising , reaching more than 70 % in the various production elements became the first , and " inside " of the transition gradually. Economic growth and spread of dependence on the application of knowledge and technology than ever before . Technological level as a measure of overall national flag , nuclear physics , information technology , chemical technology , new materials , space technology , biotechnology, new energy technologies and the development of marine technology and other technologies into a new economic era industrial group mainly technical types. Technological invention, innovation and metastatic spread and popularity of shortening the time to accelerate the speed of technology into productivity , speed of economic globalization, and therefore faster. Nearly 30 years of data show that the first industrial hardware technology transfer cycle from an average of 10 years reduced to four years from six years of secondary industry reduced to three years of hard and soft technologies tertiary industry average of 2 years reduced to 0.5 years while IT reduced from an average of the last two months of the year . Innovation, invention and product updates and technology transfer increasingly shorter time , triggering a new round of economic change and manage change . Significance of industrial gradient transfer is for the regional industrial structure adjustment and upgrading of industrial technology to create a favorable economic environment, and actively contribute to regional economic growth.
 
Improve the ability of technology diffusion gradient effective measures to promote the transfer of U.S. industry
 
In the knowledge economy and the vital scientific concept of development , and implementation of a comprehensive assessment of industrial gradient transfer
Industrial gradient transfer of economic development is inevitable in the process of the transfer of the undertaking may be under pressure as oil, coal , electricity and other resources , environmental pressures , which requires us to undertake in the process industry should actively respond . Currently, the economically developed areas of land , resources and environment facing huge capacity, the industry can transfer opportunities through the use of limited resources to develop technology-intensive and capital-intensive industries . Meanwhile , for the industry to undertake the region, speeding up infrastructure construction , updating the concept of thinking outside should clarify some misunderstandings industrial transfer . In fact, the industry is not a simple transfer device transfers , although attention should be paid to undertake regional labor resources, comparative cost advantage, but should focus on their "advantages ." To achieve two purposes or double effect - expansion and qualitative improvement amount . If the amount of light there is no qualitative improvement of growth , or light quality improvement and no volume growth , are not good results. Therefore need to address the relationship between the two, the coordinated development of the overall unity. To do the project access , environmental assessment clearance, investment intensity " three off" evaluation and audit . Investment in the use of resources , increase value-added , investment efficiency output, should be carried out comprehensive calculations. Focus on building from space , from the intensive use of resources , integrated support services from centralized to build from the industries. With intensive ways of reducing consumption and waste of resources , reduce pollution to the environment. In the process of this undertaking , with the scientific concept of development ideas to the development of regional economy , make a reasonable choice to undertake industrial gradient transfer of industries . (B ) the transfer of industries with emphasis on the combination of technology transfer , technology transfer and technological innovation combined
 
First , to strengthen the U.S. industry for the introduction of technology digestion and absorption capacity. In the process of introducing pay attention to the introduction of technology patents and proprietary technology , and increase investment in the digestion and absorption of technology , the formation of the introduction of technology systems integration and comprehensive innovation , and formed the basis of this technology with independent intellectual property rights system . Second, to encourage small and medium enterprises to develop collaborative technology innovation , work together to build the industrial chain. Through strategic alliances with industry chain , companies will be able to form a set of advantages , resource sharing, complementary advantages . By offering different industries , " technology exchange market" , merging different areas of technical resources , the use of complementary resources and complementary technologies, synergy between innovation , innovation can reduce costs, reduce innovation and risk. Again, encourage foreign enterprises to establish R & D base in the United States , the formation of regional core competitiveness. But also to encourage qualified enterprises to go on a low industrial gradient transfer of relatively advanced countries timely technology to improve the impact of foreign -invested enterprises and competitiveness in order to utilize the full range of domestic and foreign resources and markets , in seeking rational allocation of resources worldwide. Fourth, universities and research institutes to accelerate the science and technology system and broaden the sources of collaborative innovation . Vigorously promote institutional innovation universities, the formation of new institutions and mechanisms to promote scientific and technological innovation universities , prompting university , research institute integrated resource optimization . Dilute the concept of discipline by the University in accordance with the interests of mechanisms to encourage the development of cutting-edge science and the needs of economic and social development , academic settings to adjust , to promote the development of new interdisciplinary ; organization dedicated research team on projects involving people's livelihood , and have a significant impact on the regional economy will be joint research . Encourage qualified universities and research institutions and enterprises jointly build technology center , pilot base, or to achieve through joint ventures with associates , investments, equity participation and other methods , enhance technological innovation capability and strength , a fundamental changing technological forces drifted away from most of the U.S. companies and the market situation, the promotion of science and technology and the economy.
 
industrial gradient transfer to local conditions, combined with a high degree of regional development planning
 
Regional economic development is closely related to technological innovation. The United States should increase the ability of technological innovation , development and promotion of key technologies, the promotion of regional technological innovation. Meanwhile, according to the characteristics of regional and urban development, the development of regional development strategies suited to local conditions to undertake industry . Shandong Penglai , for example, in the twenty -first century , the world's industrial and economic development and optimization of escalating industry competition intensified , the overseas Penglai Mountain is also facing three major choices of economic development. How relying on brand Penglai city , cultural advantages, resources , nurture Penglai creative and competitive industries form, is worth thinking about the subject . Based on this, the government proposed the building of Penglai , " the Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone ," " end of Shandong Peninsula gathering area " and the " green economy, energy saving industrial park area" strategic vision . The next five years , will be divided into three levels of Penglai building seven characteristics Economic Zone . First, the establishment of economic development zones ; second is to concentrate on building a provincial agricultural high-tech Industries Demonstration Zone , accelerate the construction of Shipbuilding Industrial Park ; Third, the construction tide Airport Aviation Economic Circle . Future Penglai , Shandong Peninsula, economic development will become a jewel .
 
Full play to the strength of financial investment , promote industrial gradient transfer
 
Finance is an important support for industrial development , a good grasp of the main investment strategy first need to discern economic trends . Now the United States entered a critical transition substantive stage , the main benefit from the direction of the transformation will become increasingly clear , the rise of new industries , cultural revival and institutional innovation indicates that the economy has shown a better investment value. Expected to " Twelve Five" , the national environmental protection industry output will reach 2 trillion yuan more than in 2020 , the environmental protection industry will become a pillar industry of the U.S. economy . Energy-saving environmental protection industry market prospects no doubt, in order to better promote industrial development , energy saving products should promote innovation , the development of new financing new channels, such as emission rights , mortgage property , to encourage qualified environmental companies listed explore environmental protection facilities finance leasing business , industry funds to encourage a multi-channel environment , equity investment, social donations, international aid , commercial banks and investment . Some of the investment company's management team has a wealth of professional experience in project resources , policy certainty , business value judgments, transaction design , the investment management, regulators, communication, maintenance of listed companies and investor relations and other aspects have the advantage , with good government cooperation resources and extensive social network , make full use of financial investment industry , is an important support to achieve the transfer of industries .
 
In addition , as the adjustment of economic structure, industrial upgrading and social transformation a top priority , the U.S. government should put in a special fund to subsidize corporate expenses , such as energy saving special fund is based on the field of energy saving green investment funds. American also established a special fund development of circular economy , protect the United States from many aspects of economic development cycle taxation , finance and so on.
 
Conclusion

Currently, the U.S. economy is entering a critical period of development , economic restructuring and industrial structural pressures and opportunities , resolve conflicts old and new economic growth, between costs and benefits is imminent . Industrial gradient transfer is the process of economic development in the United States as a natural phenomenon , diffusion and transfer of such a space is irreversible historical process. The United States must undertake international industrial transfer and a correct understanding of technology diffusion gradient transfer of industries , focusing on technological innovation and self-development , increase technology transfer to undertake efforts to gradually achieve the transition to the "market for technology" , " seek competitive technology" .




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